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Adult Bone Marrow Transplant

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant


Stem cells are the cells which are responsible for producing blood in the human organism. The transplant of these cells which have profoundly special functions are generally called “bone marrow transplant” or “stem cell transplant”. 

Bone marrow transplant is called “autologous transplant” when it is performed in the patient by their own stem cells and is called “allogenic transplant” when it is performed by the cells taken from relatives or from unrelated donors who have tissue compatibility. The stem cell of the blood is transplanted in the bone marrow transplant.In the past, stem cells used to be directly collected from bone marrow via special needles under operating room conditions. However, this method is rarely applied today. In the recent years, the stem cells are transferred from the bone marrow to the blood via a special medication and the cells are collected by a method called “apheresis”. This method requires no surgical intervention. 

Transplant of the bone marrow requires no surgical procedure, either. The marrow is transplanted in the patient via vascular access, the bone marrow cells find the bone marrow themselves via their biological features and start the blood production. The main challenge of the marrow transplant is to follow up the patient while the marrow acquires function in its new location. In this critical period, red and white blood cells and thrombocytes which are responsible for coagulation cannot be produced. 

Therefore, this is a period in which complications such as anemia, infection and hemorrhage may develop. It is crucial to prevent the marrow rejection or the diseases caused by the new marrow via the treatment of the undesirable situations such as infections and hemorrhage which may develop in this period. 

The success in bone marrow transplant is achieved when a good technical infrastructure and good isolation from microbes, an interdisciplinary accord, cooperation and team experience collaborate and when the departments such as intensive care provide the necessary intervention in the organ transplant and in the accompanying complications.

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